Skip directly to content

乳癌

乳癌是香港第三常⾒的癌症,由⼆零零六至一六年的病發率上升達60%1。當乳房細胞在不受控的情況下分裂和⽣⻑時, 乳癌便有機 會由此⽽⽣2。 乳癌可被分為不同種類,其診斷⽅法和⽣⻑速度也有不同。因此,不同種類的乳癌患者會接受對⾃⼰效果最佳的療程。

常見病徵3

  • 乳房腫塊,硬塊
  • 乳房形狀或大小的改變
  • 乳房皮膚的改變
  • 乳頭或乳房的皮膚出現脫皮,紅腫
  • 乳頭內陷

發病原因4,5

以下為增加患上乳癌的因素, 但至於下列因素如何觸發細胞的變異則有待考究:

  • 女性
  • 年齡增長
  • 個人病歷
  • 家族病歷
  • 帶有增加乳癌機會的遺傳基因: 常見的基因變異包括BRCA1和BRCA2
  • 曝露於高幅射下
  • 肥胖症
  • 過遲收經
  • 三十歲以上懷有第一胎
  • 從未懷孕
·      曾接受更年期後荷爾蒙治療: 曾為減輕更年期徵狀而接受黄體激素或雌激素荷爾蒙治療的女士會有較高的機會患上乳癌
 

乳癌的診斷6:

乳房造影檢查:例如乳房X光造影, 磁力共振 (MRI),超聲波檢查,都有助測出癌瘤

活組織檢驗:抽出乳房組織以便於顯微鏡下驗定,及進行更多化驗,抽取方法包括細針抽吸細胞診斷, 粗針穿刺。

病理檢驗:乳房組織被抽出後會進行化驗測試 荷爾蒙受體種類,及透過FISH, IHC 等方法以HER2的性質7

 

治療方法:8,9,10

外科手術 : 全乳切除, 腋下淋巴腺切除,其後病人可選擇乳房重建手術以重建乳房外貌

放射治療 :以高能量x光或其他種類的射線殺死癌細胞

化學治療 : 透過停止細胞分裂或直接殺死癌細胞,化療藥物可停止癌細胞的生長

標靶治療: 干擾癌細胞生長所需的份子以阻礙癌細胞生長

 

參考資料:

  1. Hospital Authority, HKSAR Government. Hong Kong Cancer Registry (2016 version), Available at https://www3.ha.org.hk/cancereg/pdf/overview/Summary%20of%20CanStat%2020... Accessed on 8 August 2019.
  2. Breast Cancer Care UK, Breast cancer facts. Available at http://www.breastcancercare.org.uk/breast-cancer-information/about-breas... Accessed on 6 June 2019.
  3. Mayo Clinic. Breast Cancer Symptoms. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-cau... Accessed on 8 August 2019.
  4. American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Causes. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/about/how-does-breast-cancer.... Accessed on 23 August 2019.
  5. Mayo Clinic. Breast Cancer Risk Factors. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-ca... on 6 June 2019.
  6. Centres for Disease Control and Preventions. Breast Cancer. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/diagnosis.htm Accessed on 6 June 2019.
  7. American Cancer Society. Understanding Your Pathology Report: Breast Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/tests/understanding-your-pathology-report/breast-pathology/breast-cancer-pathology.html Accessed on 8 August 2019.
  8. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Treatment. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/patient/pregnancy-breast-treatment-p... Accessed on 8 August 2019.
  9. American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Surgery Treatment. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/surgery-for-breast... Accessed on 6 June 2019.
  10. National Cancer Institute. Targeted Cancer Therapies. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/targeted-therapies/t... Accessed on 6 June 2019.
[PP-CPF-HKG-0052]